(Part of Landscaping Safety Series)


Other Languages: Version en espaņol

Kansas State University Research and Extension

NOTE FROM NASD:
References in this document to page numbers refer to the PDF versions of the Landscaping Safety Series.

Below are links to PDF versions of the Landscaping Safety Series:

Tractor Safety Training Guide.
Motor Vehicle Safety Training Guide.
Chipper/Shredder Safety Training Guide.
Skid Steer Safety Training Guide.
Tree Trimming Safety Training Guide.
Aerial Lift Safety Training Guide.
Mowing and Trimming Safety Training Guide.
Guide to Managing Safety
Instructor Guide for Landscape/Horticulture

Contents

Introduction What's Inside?.
Training Techniques.
Tractor Safety Training Guide.
Motor Vehicle Safety Training Guide.
Chipper/Shredder Safety Training Guide.
Skid Steer Safety Training Guide.
Tree Trimming Safety Training Guide.
Aerial Lift Safety Training Guide.
Mowing and Trimming Safety Training Guide.

Skid Steer Loader Safety Training Guide

Suggested Materials

  • Skid Steer Loader Safety Manuals (English, Spanish)
  • Sign-in Sheet
  • Pencils
  • Instructor Guide
  • Training Overheads/Slides/Projector
  • Blank Overheads/Flipchart/Blackboard/Pen for listing participant responses and outlining important concepts
  • Skid Steer Loader/Attachments for Hands-on Exercises
  • Ear Plugs and other protective equipment for Hands-on Exercises
  • First Aid Kit for Hands-on Exercises

Sources of Background Information
Skid Steer and Motor Vehicle Safety Training Manuals available for download: http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/library/Landscaping_Equipment_Safety.htm
Operator's manuals for skid steer loaders (available from dealer)

Length of Time Needed for Training
Review and select the learning activities that are most appropriate. If all of the discussion and hands-on exercises are included in the training it may take up to a full work day. Without the hands-on exercises, the classroom portion will take about two hours.

Welcome and Introduction

  • Introduce yourself.
  • Remind participants of the topic of the training.
  • Discuss breaks, locations of restrooms, ending time and any tests or evaluations.
  • Tell participants you expect them to play an active role by relating their experiences and knowledge.

Participant Introductions
Find out:

  • Who are they?
  • What is their experience with skid steer loaders?
  • What do they hope to learn from the training?

Questioning/Discussion
Before beginning Lesson 1:

  • Ask participants what they believe are the most common types of accidents that happen with skid steer loaders. List ideas on an overhead or flipchart.
  • Have any participants known someone who has been killed or seriously injured in a skid steer accident? Would they care to share what happened?

Lesson 1 Take Charge of Your Own Safety

Suggested Objectives
  • List the two most commonly reported causes of death from skid steer loaders.
  • Interpret the meaning of commonly posted warning signs.

Discuss Accident Reports on pages 4 -5 of the Skid Steer Loader Safety Manual

Discussion Items

  • How well did participants' ideas for the most common cause of accidents match those in the Chipper/Shredder Safety manual? (Refer to the overhead or flipchart list made during the introduction.)
  • Which of these hazards represents the greatest risk in your workplace?
  • Have any participants known someone who has been seriously injured or killed while operating a chipper/shredder? Would anyone care to share what happened?

Discuss the Safety Signs on page 6 of the Chipper/Shredder Safety Manual

Visual Aid

  • Display and discuss the overhead "Deaths Involving Skid Steer Loaders" on page 119 of the Instructor Guide. (These percentages represent the combined results of 2 studies of 91 deaths involving skid steer loaders. Studies were conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.)
  • Refer to list of participants' ideas about the most common causes of accidents on skid steer loaders. How well do participant's ideas match the actual cases of death? Are participants surprised by any of the most common types of accidents?

Discuss the Safety Signs on page 6 of the Skid Steer Loader Manual

Can participants recall any safety signs they have seen on equipment?

Evaluation
As a group, answer the quiz items on page 7 of the Skid Steer Loader Safety Manual. Be sure to discuss each item.

Questioning/Discussion
Before beginning Lesson 2:

  • Ask participants what safety items they check before starting the skid steer loader each day. List their responses on a flipchart or overhead.
  • What precautions do they take when they shut down the skid steer loader and leave it unattended?

Lesson 2 Prepare for Safe Operation

Suggested Objectives
  • Identify and locate safety related features you must check each day before startup.

Discuss the Pre-Start Inspection information and Checklist on page 8 -9 of the Skid Steer Loader Safety Manual

Discussion Items

  • How well did participants' list of safety items they check before starting the skid steer loader each day match those in the Skid Steer Safety Manual? (Refer to the overhead or flipchart list made at the end of lesson 1.)
  • Discuss your company's policy for recording pre-start equipment checks.
  • Do all of the company's skid steer loaders have safety features that keep the lift arms and attachments from moving when the operator is not in the driver's seat? Have any of these safety features been disabled?
  • Discuss your company's policy for safety belt use.

Analysis
Ask participants to silently read "Safe Start and Shut Down" on pages 9-11 of the Skid Steer Loader Safety Manual. For each numbered or bulleted item, ask participants to write a "C" in the margin if the item mainly protects them from being crushed by moving parts. Write an "R" in the margin if the items mainly addresses being run over. Write a "B" in the margin if the item mainly addresses both of these hazards. Write an "O" in the margin if the item mainly addresses other hazards. When everyone has finished, have each participant read an item and briefly tell what type of accident it will prevent and why. Be sure to discuss items that participants find surprising or difficult to comply with.

Discuss the Accident Reports on pages 10-11 of the Skid Steer Loader Safety Manual

Evaluation
Individually or as a group, answer the quiz items on page 12 of the Skid Steer Loader Safety Manual. Be sure to discuss each item.

Hands-on Exercise

  • As a group or individually inspect a skid steer loader using a checklist such as the Pre-Operation Inspection on page 120 of the Instructor Guide.
  • Have each participant safely mount, start, shut down, and dismount a skid steer loader, observing the precautions on pages 9-11 of the Skid Steer Safety Manual. (Instruct participants about the operating controls and keep everyone out of the way.)
  • Hitch and unhitch equipment that participants will be expected to use.
  • Discuss other procedures that may be relevant for other types of skid steer loaders.

Lesson 3 Don't Get Crushed by Moving Parts

Suggested Objectives

  • Recognize how moving parts can crush you.
  • Identify safe work practices that protect you from being crushed.

Discuss the Accident Reports on pages 13 -14 of the Skid Steer Loader Safety Manual

Case Studies
Break the class into small groups of three to five participants. Provide each group with one of the scenarios on pages 122-125 of this Instructor Guide. Ask each group to discuss their scenario, using the information from Lesson 3 of the Skid Steer Safety Manual. If there are more than four groups, more than one group can work on the same scenario. Monitor the progress of each group. Bring the class back together and ask for a representative from each group to read their problem and explain their solution. Display case study overheads as each group takes turns. Ask other groups what they think of the proposed solution.

Hands-on Exercise
Show the class one or more skid steer loaders (parked and properly shut down). Ask participants to point out locations where they could be crushed by moving parts while operating the loader. Locate data plates and load capacities for the skid steer loader(s). Demonstrate the proper use of the safety belt and bar.

Evaluation
Answer the quiz items on page 16 of the Skid Steer Loader Safety Manual. Be sure to discuss each item.

Lesson 4 Prevent Rollover Accidents

Suggested Objectives
  • Identify safe work procedures to avoid rollover accidents.
  • Describe what could happen when safety procedures are not followed.

Discuss the Accident Reports on pages 17 -19 of the Skid Steer Loader Safety Manual

Discussion

  • Discuss the load capacities and locations of data plates of the skid steer loaders used by the company.

Case Studies
Break the class into small groups of three to five participants. Provide each group with one of the scenarios on pages 126-128 of this Instructor Guide. Ask each group to discuss their scenario, using the information from Lesson 4 of the Skid Steer Loader Safety Manual. If there are more than three groups, more than one group can work on the same scenario. Monitor the progress of each group. Bring the class back together and ask for a representative from each group to read their problem and explain their solution. Display case study overheads as each group takes turns. Ask other groups what they think of the proposed solution.

Visual Aid
Display and discuss the overheads of skid steer loaders on pages 129-134. Ask participants to identify the safer way to operate the skid steer loader to avoid a rollover. Answer key provided on page 135.

Evaluation
As a group, answer the quiz items on page 21 of the Skid Steer Loader Safety Manual. Be sure to discuss each item.

Lesson 5 Other Operational Hazards

Suggested Objectives
  • Describe how to avoid collisions with obstacles, traffic and people.
  • Identify dangers from electricity, carbon monoxide, fuels and other fluids as well as falling material.

Discuss the Accident Report on page 22 of the Skid Steer Loader Safety Manual

Discussion Items

  • Do any participants know of someone who has been run over by a skid steer loader or other equipment? Would they care to share what happened?
  • For the kind of work your company does, what tasks carry the greatest risk of someone getting run over?
  • Discuss your company's practices regarding moving loads that block the driver's view.
  • Discuss any hand signals used by drivers, guides and spotters.
  • Discuss your company's policy regarding extra riders on skid steer loaders.
  • Discuss any recommendations under the heading "Steer Clear of Runover Accidents" on pages 22-23 that haven't already been covered.

Discuss the Accident Report on page 23 of the Skid Steer Loader Safety Manual

  • Do any participants know of someone who has been injured or killed because they collided with an obstacle while driving a skid steer loader? Would they care to share what happened?
  • Where at work are participants at greatest risk of having a collision? What can be done to minimize collisions?
  • Discuss undercutting. Do participants remove bulk materials from large piles? If so, what precautions do they take?
  • Discuss your company's policies and practices regarding checking for and repairing hydraulic fluid leaks.

Discuss the Accident Report on page 23 of the Skid Steer Loader Safety Manual

  • Do participants use skid steer loaders indoors? If so, what precautions do they take to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning?
  • Discuss your company's policy regarding work near power lines and calling the utility location hotline before digging.
  • What do you do if your skid steer loader comes in contact with a power line?

Evaluation
Answer the quiz items on page 26 of the Skid Steer Safety Manual either individually or as a class. Be sure to discuss each item.

Hands-on Exercise

  • Take the class outdoors and point out several specific locations (roadside, warehouse, field, residential area). Break the class into groups of three to five participants. Ask each group to evaluate one of the areas and report back to the class regarding any precautions that are necessary in order to prevent an accident involving a roll over, runover, collision with obstacles, traffic, carbon monoxide or electricity.
  • In a safe area such as a private road or parking lot on the company's property, have participants set up a roadside work area using traffic cones and flaggers, as appropriate. Make sure all participants wear brightly-colored reflective vests and any other safety equipment that the organization requires for this type of work. Guidelines for roadside work areas are detailed in the Motor Vehicle Safety Manual for Landscaping and Horticultural Services at http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/library/Landscaping_Equipment_Safety.htm
  • With the class observing, ask one of the participants to demonstrate how to safely fuel a skid steer loader. Why is it important to touch the fuel nozzle to the loader before opening the fuel cap?

Lesson 6 Environmental Hazards

Suggested Objectives
  • Identify environmental hazards.
  • Recognize treatment for first aid for exposure to environmental hazards.

Case Studies
Break the class into small groups of three to five participants. Provide each group with one of the scenarios on pages 136-138 of this Instructor Guide. Ask each group to discuss their scenario, using the information from Lesson 6 of the Skid Steer Loader Safety Manual. If there are more than three groups, more than one group can work on the same scenario. Monitor the progress of each group. Bring the class back together and ask for a representative from each group to read their problem and explain their solution. Display case study overheads as each group takes turns. Ask other groups what they think of the proposed solution.

Discussion

  • When using a skid steer loader in frigid winter weather, what body parts are most likely to be injured by the cold? Why? In their personal experience, what actions have participants found most effective for preventing cold-induced injury?

Discussion

  • Have any participants had a bad experience with insects, animals or poisonous plants while working at their jobs? Would they care to share what happened?

Evaluation
Answer the quiz items on page 33 of the Skid Steer Loader Safety Manual either individually or as a class. Be sure to discuss each item.

Hands-on Exercise
Using your company's first aid kits, demonstrate and have participants practice first aid for common injuries such as cuts and burns.

Conclusion

Contest
Divide the class into groups. Display the contest items provided on pages 139-145 of the Instructor Guide. In turn, ask each group a multiple choice or true/false question from the overheads. Each group gets one point for every correct answer. If a group misses a question, allow the next group to answer it for a point. Keep track of points and recognize the winning group. Use the questions as opportunities to discuss the training material. Answer key provided on page 146 of the Instructor Guide.

Discussion
Ask participants to share any questions or concerns they may still have or want to discuss further.

Evaluation
Answer the quiz questions on page 35 individually or as a group. Be sure to discuss each item.

Hands-on Performance Evaluation
In a safe area with adequate supervision, have each participant complete a hands-on performance evaluation while operating a skid steer loader (including attachments, if appropriate). The evaluation may include completing:

  • Pre-Operation Inspection provided on page 120 of the Instructor Guide
  • Connecting attachments
  • Safe start-up
  • Driving the loader, to perform a safe task
  • Removal of attachments
  • Safe shut-down

A checklist for the performance evaluation is provided on page 121 of the Instructor Guide.

Visual Aid (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 1)

Deaths Involving Skid Steer Loaders
59% =
Pinned/crushed between bucket and frame or between lift arms and frame
19% =
Rollover
16% =
Crushing incidents with no further information provided
2% =
Pinned/crushed between loader and another object
1% =
Run over
2% =
Other/Unknown
Composite results of government studies involving a total of 1 deaths reported in National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Publication Number 98 -117

Case Study # 1 (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 3)

You are using an older skid steer loader with a front bucket attachment. While lifting a load, the lift arms get stuck in the raised position. One of your coworkers sees that you are having a problem and comes to help. What precautions should be taken regarding: getting safely out of the loader? keeping your coworker safe? repairing the loader?

Case Study # 2 (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 3)

You are using a loader with a bucket attachment to move dirt around a building foundation. There are lots of trees and shrubs near the foundation, so you are placing the dirt as close as you can, while coworkers on the ground are spreading the dirt with shovels. What issues do you need to consider and what precautions should you take to protect your coworkers?

Case Study # 3 (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 3)

Your boss sends you to get the skid steer loader. When you get to the equipment shed, you find that someone has been using the loader and didn't shut it down properly. The engine is running, the lift arms and bucket are raised, but you don't see anyone around. What issues do you need to consider and what precautions should you take in order to safely enter and move the loader?

Case Study # 4 (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 3)

It is winter, and you will be using the skid steer loader. Upon inspection, you see that ice and frozen mud have accumulated under the front of the loader. You believe the loader will be damaged if you try to operate it without first clearing away the ice and mud. The only way to clean the loader is to raise the lift arms and then work underneath. Describe how you will plan this job to make sure no one gets hurt while cleaning under the front of the loader.

Case Study # 1 (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 4)

You are using a skid steer loader to load trucks with soil and other materials. The soil is stored outside, but some materials are stored in a warehouse. A ramp leads to a raised dock where you will load the trucks. Most of the floor is concrete, but a part is older wood. What issues do you need to consider and what precautions should you take to avoid a rollover accident? What precautions should you take to protect your coworkers?

Case Study # 2 (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 4)

You are assigned to use a skid steer loader to move logs and brush where trees were recently felled on a hillside. For the most part, the hill has a very gentle slope, but there are a few steep gullies and some uneven ground. Some of the logs are very small, while others are quite large. What issues do you need do consider and what precautions should you take to avoid rollover accidents while operating here?

Case Study # 3 (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 4)

You need to use a skid steer loader with a fork attachment to unload bundles of landscape timbers from a tractor-trailer. You will be moving the timbers to raised storage racks in a crowded warehouse. There is no loading dock, so the tractor trailer has to be unloaded from the ground on the gravel parking lot. What issues do you need to consider and what precautions should you take to avoid rollover accidents while operating here?

Visual Aid (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 4)
Which is Safer?
Driving on a hill with an empty bucket
uphill
downhill

Visual Aid (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 4)
Which is Safer?
Driving on a hill with a heavy load in the bucket.
uphill
downhill

Visual Aid (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 4)
Which is Safer?
Driving forward with a heavy load in the bucket.
load high
load low

Visual Aid (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 4)
Which is Safer?
Driving on a hill with an empty bucket
uphill
downhill

Visual Aid (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 4)
Which is Safer?
Driving on a hill.
perpendicular
parallel

Visual Aid (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 4)
Which is Safer?
Driving with a large log in the bucket.
with chains
without chains

Visual Aid (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 4)
Which is Safer?
Carrying a heavy object.
middle of loader
left of loader

Visual Aids Answer Key (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 4)
answers
answers

Case Study # 1 (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 6)

Your crew will be working in large open area tomorrow (no shade). The weather is expected to be very hot and humid. One of your crew members is new, and it will be his first day on the job. What issues do you need to consider and what precautions should you take to protect the crew from heat illness?

Case Study # 2 (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 6)

You and another worker have been working all day. The weather is hot and sunny. You notice your coworker doesn't look good. His skin is pale and sweaty and he says he feels sick to his stomach.

  1. What actions do you take?
  2. Despite your efforts, your coworker gets worse and begins acting disoriented. His face is flushed, and his skin feels hot and dry. Now what actions do you take?
  3. What could have been done to prevent this from happening?

Case Study # 2 (Skid Steer Loader Safety Lesson 6)

You are clearing trees and brush along a powerline in a rural area. There is a severe thunderstorm watch in effect, and the sky looks stormy and dark. You think you see a flash of lightning far off on the horizon. You listen for thunder, but you don't hear anything other than the wind.

  1. What actions do you take?
  2. Suddenly lightning begins to flash around you. You have a work truck and trailer and there is an open metal shed nearby. Now what actions do you take?

Contest (Skid Steer Loader Safety Conclusion)

  1. Which of the following shows safety messages in order from most serious to least serious?
    1. Danger; Warning; Caution
    2. Warning; Danger; Caution
    3. Caution; Danger; Warning
  2. Never enter a skid steer loader unless:
    1. the lift arms are down and attachments are on the ground.
    2. the engine is off.
    3. both A and B.
  3. Never operate a skid steer loader unless:
    1. the safety belt is fastened.
    2. the restraining bar is lowered (if so equipped).
    3. both A and B.
  4. Do not get any part of your body beneath the raised lift arms and attachments unless they are supported by:
    1. a concrete block.
    2. an approved support device.
    3. a jack.
  5. Which is the best practice for starting a skid steer loader?
    1. If the starter isn't working, start the loader by shorting across the starter terminals.
    2. Never start loader from outside the cab.
    3. If the loader was shut down with the lift arms and attachment raised, re-start the loader by standing outside the cab and reaching in to turn the key.
  6. Which is the best practice for shutting down a skid steer loader?
    1. Block the wheels if there is a chance the loader will roll.
    2. Leave the lift arms and attachment raised about a foot above the ground.
    3. Leave the engine running if you will be out of the cab less than 0 seconds.
  7. Which of the following is the best practice for avoiding heat illness?
    1. Drink plenty of soda, tea or coffee.
    2. Drink at least a quart of water per hour.
    3. Eat large meals before working.
  8. Which is the best practice if you are in a skid steer loader and a coworker approaches to talk with you:
    1. Ask him to lean into the cab so you can hear him above the engine noise.
    2. Tell him to stay back. Then lean out of the cab so you can hear him above the engine noise.
    3. Keep the coworker away until you lower the lift arms and attachments, shut off the engine and set the parking brake.
  9. Which of the following will help you avoid a rollover accident?
    1. Keep the load high while you turn on hills. Carry loads close to the ground, but high enough to clear obstacles.
    2. Operate the lift controls as rapidly as possible.
  10. Which is the best practice when lifting a load?
    1. Check the data plate for lifting capacity.
    2. Position a worker under the load to give hand signals to the operator.
    3. Once the load is in the air, swing it rapidly into position.
  11. Which is the best practice if you have to operate on a hill or ramp?
    1. Drive across hills, not up and down.
    2. Keep the heavy end of the loader uphill.
    3. Keep the heavy end of the loader downhill.
  12. Which is the best practice to avoid running over coworkers?
    1. If a load blocks your view, either drive in reverse (if the loader is designed so you can see behind) or have a coworker guide you from a safe distance.
    2. Drive past blind corners as quickly as possible.
    3. Allow riders only if they hold firmly to the loader.
  13. Which is the best practice for digging into piles of materials?
    1. Never work with materials that are piled higher than your raised attachment.
    2. When working with a tall pile of material, always dig into the bottom of the pile.
    3. Ram the attachment into the pile with as much force as possible.
  14. Which of the following is the best practice when driving a loader onto a trailer?
    1. If the loader bucket is empty, drive up the ramp in reverse.
    2. If the loader bucket is empty, drive forward up the ramp.
    3. Ask a coworker to stand on the trailer and guide you as you drive up the ramp.
  15. Seek medical attention if:
    1. direct pressure will not stop a cut from bleeding.
    2. burns occur on the face or genitals.
    3. all of the above

Contest Answer Key (Skid Steer Loader Safety Conclusion)

  1. a
  2. c
  3. c
  4. b
  5. b
  6. a
  7. b
  8. c
  9. b
  10. a
  11. b
  12. a
  13. a
  14. a
  15. c

Forms (PDF)
Daily Pre-Operation Inspection: Skid Steer Loader
Evaluation/Performance Checklist: Skid Steer Loader



This material was produced under grant number 46G3-HT04 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. government.

This booklet was produced by K-State Research and Extension, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.

The information in this publication has been compiled from a variety of sources believed to be reliable and to represent the best current opinion on the subject. However, neither K-State Research and Extension nor its authors guarantee accuracy or completeness of any information contained in this publication, and neither K-State Research and Extension or its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of the use of this information. Additional safety measures may be required under particular circumstances.

Brand names appearing in this publication are for product identification purposes only. No endorsement is intended, nor is criticism implied of similar products not mentioned.

Publication #: MF2716

Disclaimer and Reproduction Information: Information in NASD does not represent NIOSH policy. Information included in NASD appears by permission of the author and/or copyright holder. More

Reviewed for NASD: 05/2007