DAILY CHORE: Handling Stress on the Farm

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Understanding Stress, Its Impact, and Exploring Coping Methods.

person in a field of wheatFarming can be both a rewarding but demanding occupation. Farmers are exposed to a great deal of physical health risks with long strenuous labour and poor working conditions inhibited by weather and time of day. Due to the nature of farming, farmers and their families are susceptible to high levels of stress, depression, anxiety, and suicide. The National Stress Survey found that “almost twothirds of Canadian farmers are feeling stressed on their farm” (CASA, 2005). As a result of the high stress among Canadian farmers, the Agricultural Health and Safety Network has developed this resource to support farmers’ understanding of stress, its impact and promote a variety of helpful coping methods to assist in stress reduction.

“I got my swather stuck, a minute later my father phoned to tell me the unloading auger stopped working on the combine, and then shortly after that a bearing went on our other combine. This all happened midday, peak season of harvest, with rain in the near forecast. Everything went wrong all at once, talk about being stressed. ”
Saskatchewan Farmer

“We are farming a lot more land these days, and it can be pretty challenging organizing several workers on the farmkeeping everyone on track making sure they are safe and running the equipment properly trying to get a lot of work done. My wife is a big help to me on our farm, but I know that I have been pretty short with her lately. She is busy working off the farm, helping the kids keep up with school and activities and keeping on top of the bills that need to be paid. My sister phones every couple of days, reminds me that Dad shouldn’t be running the equipment anymore as his memory is getting poor. I know my family is worried about my Dad just like I am. I haven’t been sleeping well, and my stomach feels like it is always in a knot. “ – Saskatchewan Farmer

What is stress?

Stress can be difficult to define as people experience stress differently. Negative events do not always lead to stress, and positive events are not necessarily stress-free. Simply, stress is the disruption of the body’s homeostasis (i.e. ideal bodily function). Stress is the human response to change that is perceived as a challenge or a threat; it is a natural occurrence in life. However, too much stress can be harmful to the body, especially over a long period.

Is all stress bad?

A small amount of stress can be good for people as it makes us more alert and gives us a boost of adrenaline. Just enough stress can motivate people to accomplish tasks. This good stress is referred to as eustress. An example of eustress on the farm may be the motivation to make it through the busy seeding or harvest season.

Harmful stress

A build-up of tension without the opportunity to recover can lead to harmful stress. Bad stress is when events make us feel uncomfortable and not in control, leading to poor concentration, poor decision-making and deteriorating relationships. The main problem with stress is feeling overwhelmed by too many demands resulting in loss of confidence in our ability to cope.


Stress is part of daily life as it is a result of both the good and bad things that happen. When you find an event stressful, your body undergoes a series of responses. Health Canada describes these responses in 3 stages:

  • Mobilizing Energy: Your body releases adrenaline, your heart beats faster and you breathe faster. Both good and bad events can trigger this surge of energy and strength. You may feel like “butterflies” are in your stomach. Some also experience indigestion, no appetite, and feelings of light-headed or dizzy.
  • Consuming Energy Stores: When your body remains in the “mobilizing energy” stage for a period of time, it releases stored sugars and fats. You will then feel driven, pressured and tired. You may experience anxiety, negative thinking or memory loss, catch a cold or get the flu more often than normal as your immunity is compromised. You may increase unhealthy habits such as eating more food, drinking more coffee, drinking more alcohol and smoking.
  • Draining Energy Stores: If you are unable to decrease your stress levels, your body’s need for energy will become greater than its ability to provide it. At this stage, you may experience insomnia, errors in judgment and personality changes. Draining energy stores can lead to serious illness such as heart disease, high blood pressures, stroke or be at risk of mental illness such as depression.

    running person and heart rate monitoredSide note: Evolution of stress

    Stress has evolved over the years. Back in primitive years, stress was more physical than psychological and was short term in duration. For instance, say an early human was out gathering food to eat when all of a sudden a predator such as a lion approaches. Stress enabled the body to quickly react, sprinting away from the lion. After escaping, the body would then go into recovery mode, bringing the body back to its homeostasis. While we aren’t running away from predators anymore, our busy lifestyle has put a constant strain on our body and mind. Stress has become more chronic and long term as a result of this transition.

Stress Impacts Your Health

Feeling stressed for periods of time can take a toll on your mental and physical health. Our bodies respond to stress by releasing stress hormones. These hormones make blood pressure, heart rate, and blood sugar levels go up. The first symptoms are relatively mild, like chronic headaches and increased susceptibility to colds however with increased exposure to chronic stress more serious health problems may develop. Some stress- influenced conditions include, but are not limited to:

  • Heart Disease
  • High blood pressure
  • Abnormal heart beats
  • Mental health disorders, like depression and anxiety
  • Obesity · Menstrual problems
  • Acne and other skin problems
  • Bowel disease
  • Weakening of Immune system


Recognizing symptoms of stress

Stress can surface in the form of physical, emotional and behavioural changes depending on the person and situation.

Check the stress symptoms you may have experienced.

picture of vitalsPhysical

  • Headaches
  • Chest Pain
  • Stomach problems (eg. constipation or diarrhea)
  • Rapid beating heart
  • Change in blood pressure
  • Grinding/clenched teeth
  • Fatigue
  • Drop in sexual interest


  • Increased angry blow-ups
  • Frustration
  • Difficulty controlling emotions
  • Impatient
  • Low self-esteem
  • Depressed
  • Suicidal thoughts


  • Overeating/neglect diet
  • increased smoking/ drinking
  • Change in sleeping habits (Insomnia, early waking, over-sleeping)
  • Difficulty relaxing
  • Restlessness/lack of concentration
  • Withdrawn from others
  • Trouble adapting to changing circumstances
  • Forgetfulness
  • Procrastination
  • Short tempered
  • Sarcastic arguments
  • Inpulsive buying
  • Gambling

What are Stressors?

man holding and reading a paper in a fieldStressors are those events or circumstances that cause people to become stressed. Stressors can be physical (e.g. pain, illness, or injury) or psychological (e.g. financial worry, time pressures, or family matters). Stressors and their severity vary among people.

Common stressors on the farm

  • workload - too much to do in too little time
  • weather - not doing what is needed
  • financial pressures and uncertain incomes
  • large debt loads
  • livestock well-being
  • erratic markets-unfair and unequal returns on the market
  • increased government regulation and complicated paperwork
  • long waking hours
  • diagreements with other family members in the farm operation
  • uncertain crop yield and forage production
  • machinery breakdown
  • handling dangerous goods
  • lack of rest
  • technology- frustrating when not working properly
  • unreasonable personal pressure and or goals

Canadian farmers listed the single biggest factors causing stress

national stress and mental survey for canadian farmers, highest of percentage said commodity prices, and second general farm finances

Stress can build over time

  1. Stress can occur suddenly with no warning - hail destorys your quarter of lentils.
  2. Stress can build rapidly over a short period of time- one thing after another goes wrong in a day. For example, the cows are out, the ATV has a flat tire, can't find any fencing staples, cell phone keeps ringing...
  3. Stress can snowball over weeks, months, and even years - poor cash flow, high debt, and personal worries escalate

Identifying your stressors

Farming involves many situations that cause stress. Common farm stressors are finances, weather, heavy work overloads, and conflict in relationships.

Complete the following inventory to identify your stressors. Rate your stressors on a scale of 1 to 5.
(1 = low stress 5 = high stress).

1. Sudden and significant increas in debt load 1 2 3 4 5
2. Significant production loss due to disease or pests 1 2 3 4 5
3. Insufficient regular cash flow to meet financial obligations or for daily necessities 1 2 3 4 5
4. Delay in planting or harvesting due to weather 1 2 3 4 5
5. Media distortions of farm situation 1 2 3 4 5
6. Low commodity prices 1 2 3 4 5
7. Significant changes in type or size of farming operation 1 2 3 4 5
8. Meeting with loan officer for additional loan 1 2 3 4 5
9. Purchase of major machinery, facility or livestock 1 2 3 4 5
10. Not being considered part of the farm business by others 1 2 3 4 5
11. Taking an off-the-farm job to meet expenses 1 2 3 4 5

12. Prolonged bad weather

1 2 3 4 5
13. Problems with weeds or insects 1 2 3 4 5
14. Machinery breakdown at a critical time 1 2 3 4 5
15. Not enough time to spend with spouse 1 2 3 4 5
16. Crop loss due to weather 1 2 3 4 5
17. Illness during planting/harvesting 1 2 3 4 5
18. Deciding when to sell 1 2 3 4 5
19. Rising expenses 1 2 3 4 5
20. Government policies and regulations 1 2 3 4 5
21. concerns about the continued financial viability of the farm 1 2 3 4 5
22. Having a loan request turned down 1 2 3 4 5
23. Farming-related accident 1 2 3 4 5
24. Government free-trade policies 1 2 3 4 5
25. Government "cheap food" policies 1 2 3 4 5
26. Metric conversion 1 2 3 4 5
27. Breeding or reproductive difficulties with livestock 1 2 3 4 5
28. No farm help or loss of help when needed 1 2 3 4 5
29. Need to learn/adjust to new government regulations and policies 1 2 3 4 5
30. Spouse doesn't have enough time for child-rearing 1 2 3 4 5
31. Increased workload at peak times 1 2 3 4 5
32. Unplanned interruptions 1 2 3 4 5
33. Use of hazardous chemicals on the farm 1 2 3 4 5
34. Dealing with salespeople 1 2 3 4 5
35. Long work hours 1 2 3 4 5
36. Few vacations away from the farm 1 2 3 4 5
37. Feeling isolated on the farm 1 2 3 4 5
38. Having to travel long distances for services, shopping and health care 1 2 3 4 5
39. Pressure of having too much to do in too little time 1 2 3 4 5
40. Keeping up with new technology and products 1 2 3 4 5
41. Worrying about market conditions 1 2 3 4 5
42. Having to make decisions without all the necessary information 1 2 3 4 5
43. Being expected to work on the farm as well as manage the house 1 2 3 4 5
44. Worrying about owing money 1 2 3 4 5
45. Worrying about keeping the farm in the family 1 2 3 4 5
46. Not seeing enough people 1 2 3 4 5

47. Not having enough money or time for entertainment and recreation

1 2 3 4 5
48. Death of a parent or member of immediate family 1 2 3 4 5
49. Death of a friend 1 2 3 4 5
50. Problems balancing work and family responsibilities 1 2 3 4 5
51. Problems with relatives in farm operating agreement 1 2 3 4 5
52. Divorce or marital separation 1 2 3 4 5
53. Problems with a partnership 1 2 3 4 5
54. Daughter or son leaving home 1 2 3 4 5
55. Trouble with parents or in-laws 1 2 3 4 5
56. Conflict with spouse over spending priorities 1 2 3 4 5
57. Major decisions being made without my knowledge or input 1 2 3 4 5
58. Having to wear too many hats, eg. farmer, spouse, father, son etc. 1 2 3 4 5
59. Surface-rights negotiations 1 2 3 4 5
60. Other recent events which have had an impact on your life: 1 2 3 4 5

Putting Your Score in Perspective

If the majority of scores are 4 or 5:

It is important for you to devote immediate attention to stress management. Give yourself credit for the tough times you have survived. It is important to remember that when you are under stress for a long time, it depletes your internal resources. It is common to identify with these farm stresses in your operation. Remember there are people to talk to, to listen and help brainstorm ways to cope. Please refer to the back page of this book for local contacts. There is no shame in talking to someone about your concerns.

If the majority of scores are 3:

Focus on your stress management strengths and continue to expand your coping skills that will help to deal with farm stress. Set goals that allow you to take control of what is controllable on your farm. The skills you are using, and those you will develop can help you to deal with uncontrollable situations that arise.

If the majority of scores are 1 and 2:

You have farm stress coping skills. Share your skills with others. Farming will continue to challenge you, so continue to communicate, prioritize daily tasks and support your family, friends, workers and community in difficult times.

How do you deal with stress?

Farmers vary in their ability to handle stress. Each person reacts to stress in their own way. What may be tolerable to one person may be a challenge to another.


      Yes No Can you name three recent situations that have caused stress in your life?
      Yes No Can you list three symptoms (physical, emotional or behavioural) that you suffer from when you are under stress?


      Yes No Can you maintain a positive or neutral attitude when dealing with “little things” in life?
      Yes No Can you talk yourself out of feeling stressed?


      Yes No Do you know (and use) relaxation techniques like deep breathing and meditation?
      Yes No Do you ever use exercise to get rid of stressed feelings?


      Yes No Do you make a list and prioritize tasks to keep yourself from feeling overwhelmed by all there is to do?
      Yes No When conflict arises can you express your feelings and communicate them to others effectively?
      ______ Total

Less than 7 yes: Any effort made to improve your ability to recognize and deal with stress will help promote balance in your life.

More than 7 yes: You are on the right track! Share your ability to balance farm stress through difficult times with friends, family and colleagues. Be aware there can be a big difference between knowing what to do and doing it.


Coping with Stress

Coping is how a person manages both their stressful problems and their responses to them. Each person may have a different way of coping with stress, and that coping style may also change based on the situation.

Two common coping styles among people

    - approach coping: deal with stressor by trying to resolve it

    - avoidant coping: avoid the problem causing stress

People who use approach coping, are more likely to adapt to stressors and have more positive outcomes than those who use avoidant coping.

Coping Methods

There are a many stress coping methods that can help resolve or reduce stress. One method may be best suited for one stressor but not the other. Coping methods are not meant to be interdependent, but they can supplement one another when two or more are used together.

Useful stress coping methods may include:

    - Cognitive-behavioral restructuring

    - Physical activity

    - Relaxation

    - Social Support


Changing stressful thoughts to positive thoughts

Cognitive-behavioural restructuring reduces stressful thoughts by restructuring them to be more realistic and unthreatening. Below is a coping technique that guides you through altering your stressful thoughts.

  1. Keep things in perspective. Ask yourself,
    • Has this happened before?
    • What else can I do?
    • What did I learn last time this happened?
    • What do I tell a friend in this situation?
    • What is the worst possible outcome?
    • A year from now, how important will this be?
    • Are my fears realistic?
  2. Use positive self-talk – let go of the blame and guilt.
    • I did the best that I could at the time.
    • This is a learning experience.
    • I will succeed.
    • Calm down.
    • There is no place to go but up.
    • Things take time.
    • Someday we’ll laugh about this.
  3. Keep a positive attitude
    • You are more likely to find a way out. It is easier to live and work with others.
  4. Develop a stress-resistant personality.
    • Set realistic goals and expectations.
    • Look for possibilities and get creative.
    • Build a time for leisure activities.
    • Connect with a positive social network that is supportive.
    • Exercise regularly.
    • Share responsibilities and ask for help.
    • Put problems in perspective and look at them as challenges.
  5. Talk to someone you trust to help you clear your head and focus on eliminating or reducing stress and anxiety - family, friends or a clergy member. Consider seeking out a professional counselor or confidential phone line programs to help if you feel completely alone, overwhelmed or hopeless. There is never any shame in asking for help to help sort the wheat from the chaff in your life.

Physical Activity

Physical activity is another great coping mechanism to reduce stress. Research has found those who exercise often are less likely to experience stress and depression. How does physical activity reduce stress?

person in sneakers in the woodsPhysical activity:

  • releases neurotransmitters in your brain called endorphins that are often referred to as the “feel good” chemical. Endorphins reduce the perception of pain, the body’s natural morphine.
  • aids in better sleep, which is important since stress can disrupt sleep. Getting 7-9 hours of sleep a night keeps the body alert and fully functional, helping the body ward off the negative effects of stress.
  • is a form of diversion. When you are out curling or playing hockey, you are concentrated on the game and having fun, soon forgetting about the stressors that may have been bothering you.

Examples of Physical activities:

  • Walking or Running
  • Bowling
  • Curling
  • Dancing
  • Recreational hockey
  • Riding a bike

man sitting and looging at the horizonRelaxation


Stress tenses your muscles, makes your breathing shallow, raises your blood pressure, makes your heart pound and clouds your judgment. Relaxation skills can reverse those effects to make you feel better, think better and perform better. Most relaxation techniques involve shifting your stressful thought by concentrating on one positive image, thought, or task. Relaxation can be achieved in many different ways such as meditation, reading a magazine, listening to your favorite music, and going for a walk. It is important to take small breaks out of your day to collect yourself and recharge. Breaks do not have to be long, a short 3-minute relaxation break maybe all you need to boost your energy and mood.

3-minute guided relaxation technique

  • While sitting upright on a chair, plant your feet on the ground.
  • Take a deep breath in and slowly release, closing your eyes. To check you’re breathing technique, place your hand on your stomach and feel your stomach expand and contract, really concentrating on long deep breaths.
  • Continue breathing in and out, inhaling for 5 seconds, holding breath for 5 seconds, and then exhaling for 5 seconds.
  • Focus on your breath, how the air feels entering and exiting your body. With each breath, try concentrating on a part of your body, moving from your head down to your toes.
  • If any thoughts come along, let them pass by, try not to acknowledge them.
  • Continue breathing technique for 3 minutes or as long as you feel needed. You can set a timer if you would like.

To get a good quality sleep

man sleeping on a pillowSometimes when we are stressed, our sleep can be compromised. Overthinking things can make it very difficult to fall asleep and stay asleep. We have to remember that sleep is very important to help our body and mind cope with the symptoms of stress. Here are a few tips to you may find helpful to get a quality sleep:

  • Get some exercise throughout the day but avoid too much exercise before bedtime.
  • Avoid nicotine, caffeine and alcohol.
  • Eat the big meal of your day earlier in the day and have a lighter supper that is higher in carbohydrates and lower in protein.
  • Have a warm bath or shower an hour or so before bed and relax.
  • Make sure the place where you are sleeping is dark. A small amount of light can prevent melatonin production, and that does not make for a good sleep.
  • Make sure your room is nice and cool while you sleep – a slight drop in body temperature induces sleep.
  • If you can’t sleep, then it is best to get up as watching the clock, tossing and turning will only make you tense and more stressed. Try relaxing in a comfortable chair reading a book, watching television, or play solitaire and before you know it you’ll be dozing off. By resting in a comfortable place you are lowering your anxiety about sleeping and this will help make it easier for you to fall asleep.

Social Support

  • Our ability to cope with stress can also depend on our social support we receive from others. Social support is connected with reduction of stress, decreased risk of depression, better health, and faster recovery from illness.
  • Support your family, business partners and community
  • Learn to negotiate and address the problem- create interaction rules and develop agreed- upon methods for handling problems. It is OK to have a difference of opinion but take the time to find a compromise.
  • Show confidence in your family, business partners and community skills and decisions.
  • Provide encouragement and concern for your family, business partners, and commuity. Spend time together to relax, laugh and celebrate. Family strength is important in the prevention of overwhelming stress but is extremely important in coping with overwhelming stress.

Laugh, it makes you feel good!

Laughter is critical to relaxation and wellbeing; it's FREE, low calorie, and available without a prescription.

Did you know that when you laugh:

  • 17 muscles in your face relax
  • blood circulation is improved
  • respiration is increased
  • muscles in your abdomen are massaged
  • the brain's natural painkillers are stimulated through the release of endorphins



Now that you understand what stress is, the impact it can have, and different coping methods for dealing with it, the next step is to take action. Direct your energy towards problem-solving and coping with your stressors. Use this recipe to deal with the stressors as they arise on the farm.

What is on my mind?

What does this affect?

What can I do?

Who can help?

Set “SMART” goals

It’s important to get a picture of what you, ideally, would like to have happen in your life and on your farm in the short and long term. SMART goals can help to turn all these stress skills into personal satisfaction and productivity.

Specific: Set a concrete goal that addresses behaviour and results.

    “For the next month, when I feel stressed and am telling my spouse about the problem I am going to use I statements rather than blaming statements, so the discussion is calmer and more productive.”

Measurable: State your goal in a way that you can easily measure progress.

    “My goal is to take twenty minutes at the end of each day and relax.”

Agreed upon: Don’t do it alone, ask others to help and support you.

    “Everyone one this farm has agreed to not interrupt my twenty minutes relaxation time to ask what needs to get done tomorrow.”

Rewarding: Behaviour change should be as much fun as possible. Reward yourself for achieving a goal as well as passing milestones.

    “If I go for a mile walk every day to get some exercise at the end of the month I will take Sunday afternoon to go fishing.”

Trackable: Keep track of your progress in a visible way, so you do not get discouraged.

    “I will keep a notepad in my pocket with a list of things to do each day and strike each job off when it is complete.”

Goal setting template:

To achieve long-term goals, you need to set three short term goals. Develop actions that will enable you to succeed in reaching the short term goals. Outline a time frame for each goal. This template can be useful in setting goals on your farm.

Goal setting template10 Positive and Productive Ways of Dealing with Stress

  1. Work it off: Exercise gives you energy and makes you feel better. Try some brisk walking.
  2. Strive for a good rest: Rest revitalizes your body and mind. Try relaxation exercises and deep breathing to lower your anxiety about falling asleep if needed.
  3. Keep it simple and positive: Take one step at a time, one day at a time. Be aware of negative thoughts. Keep your thinking positive and realistic!
  4. Take time to relax: Make time for yourself. Do something that you enjoy.
  5. Prioritize: Avoid putting things off, make up a weekly schedule that includes leisure activities as well as things you must do. Prioritize tasks, make lists, set goals, organize your time, delegate to others and reward yourself.
  6. Be assertive: Don’t try to please everybody. Learn to say “no”.
  7. Eat healthy: Eat a well-balanced diet rich in vegetables, fruit, whole grains, dairy and alternatives, and lean meat and alternatives. Limit salt, sugar, saturated and trans fat intake.
  8. Keep your mind active: Learn something new, research something you are interested in on the internet, play cards, doing quizzes or crosswords.
  9. Get it all off your chest: A problem shared is a problem cut in half. Talking to someone you trust can really help.
  10. Accept the things you cannot change: Focus your attention and energy on the things you can do and that you have control over and try to accept that there are certain things you cannot change. Take hope, you will get through this.

MCS logo

FARM STRESS LINE 1-800-667-4442

24 hours per day. Seven days per week. Free and Confidential. There is no call display.

The Farm Stress Line is staffed by peer counsellors, men and women from the farm, trained to assist people in crisis, taking calls on personal and family issues, financial situations and other concerns affecting the farm operation.


Canadian Mental Health Association

Child Abuse

Domestic Abuse

Farm Consultation Services (pro-active business planning)

Heart and Stroke Foundation

Problem Gambling Help Line (24 hrs)

Public Health Agency of Canada

Kid’s Help Phone Line (24 hrs)

Farm Debt Mediation Services

Suicide (24 hrs) (Tel. Dir. blue pages: “Mobile Crisis Service”)
9-1-1 or 1-306-933-6200

Fill in Local Contacts:

Community Addiction Services _________________
AgKnowledge Centre _________________
Counsellor _________________
Clergyman/Priest/Pastor _________________
Family Doctor _________________
Financial Counselling _________________
Mental Health Services (Local health district) _________________
Narcotics Anonymous (Phone directory, white pages) _________________
RCMP _________________
Rural Service Centre _________________
Sexual Assault Crisis Line (Tel. Dir. white pages)

DISCLAIMER: Information provided in this booklet is general in content and should not be seen as a substitute for professional medical advice. Concerns over stress, and agricultural related exposures should be discussed with your doctor.


  1. Anonymous. Reducing Your Stress. Heart and Stroke Foundation. http://www.heartandstroke.on.ca/site/c.pvI3IeNWJwE/b.3581755/ k.34E2/Heart_Disease__Reduce_your_stress.htm Accessed September, 2016.
  2. Anonymous. Quality of Rural Life Managing Farm Stress Workshop Participant’s Workbook. http://www.peifa.ca/farmsafety/ stressworkbook.html. Accessed February, 2006.
  3. Bean, T.L. and J.A. Nolan. Recognize and Mange the Stress of Farm Like. Ohio State University. AEX-693-97. Accesses January, 2006.
  4. Bidwell, J., Compton, A., Gerrar, N., and Imhoff, K. (2000). A Rural Stress Toolbook. Rural Health Extension Program. Institute of Agricultural Rural and environmental Health. University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK. Canada.
  5. Canadian Mental Health Association website Stress http://www. cmha.ca/mental_health/stress/ Accessed September, 2016.
  6. Canadian Mental Health Association and Heart & Stroke Foundation (2009). Coping with Stress. http://www.heartandstroke.ca/-/media/pdf-files/canada/other/coping-with-stress-en.ashx. Accessed September, 2016.
  7. Canadian Agricultural Safety Association. (2005). National stress and mental survey of Canadian farmers. Winnipeg: CASA.
  8. Compton, A. (1999). Talk about stress! Network News, Spring 1999. Agricultural Health and Safety Network, Centre for Agriculture Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK.
  9. Daniels, A.M. 2002. Farming, Ranching, and Stress: It’s a Family Issue. #1: Stress and the Farm or Ranch Family. South Dakota State University. Extension Extra. ExEx 14059
  10. Daniels, A.M. 2002. Farming, Ranching, and Stress: It’s a Family Issue. #2: Stress and the Farm Marriage. South Dakota State University. Extension Extra. ExEx 14059
  11. Gerrard, N. (1991). Fact sheet no. 4, Rural Stress: What is it? What can we do about it? Centre for Agriculture Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK.
  12. Gerrard, N. (1991). Farm Stress: A community Development Approach to Mental health Service Delivery, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK.
  13. Gurung, R. A. (2010). Health Psychology: A Cultural Approach (2nd Edition ed.). Belmont, CA: Thompson Wadsworth
  14. Haverstock, L. (1999) Rural Mental Health Support: an Unpublished Report to the Centre of Agricultural Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK.
  15. Health Canada (2008) Mental Health: Coping With Stress www.hc-sc. gc.ca/hl-vs/iyh-vsv/life-vie/stress-eng.php. Accessed September, 2016.
  16. LaBrash, L., Ulmer, K. (2006). Difficult Times: Stress on the Farm. Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK.
  17. Swisher, R.R., Elder, G. H. Jr., Lorenz, F.O., Conger, R.D. (1988). The long arm of the farm: how an occupation structure exposure and vulnerability to stressors across role domains. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 39 (1): 72-89.
  18. Van Hook, M. (1990). Family response to the farm crisis: a study in coping. Social Work 35 (5): 425-31.
  19. Walker, J.L. and Walker, L.J. (1987). The human harvest. Changing farm stress to family success. Brandon University, Brandon, MB, Canada.
  20. Walker, J.L. and Walker, L.J. (1988). Self-reported stress symptoms in farmers. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44 (1):10-16.

Agricultural health and safety network logoCanadian Center for health and safety in agriculture logo
The Agricultural Health and Safety Network

Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture (CCHSA)
104 Clinic Place, Box 23, University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Z4
Phone: (306) 966-6644 or (306) 966-6647
Fax: (306) 966-8799



Every care has been taken to provide accurate information in the Daily Chore: Handling Stress on the Farm resource but the authors are not liable for any results that arise from the application of this material.

Written permission is required to reproduce material.

First edition, 2000.

    4th edition prepared by:
    Ms. Miranda Dziaduck. BA, MPH Agricultural Health and Safety Network Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture

    Thanks to the following for their contribution and help:
    Dr. Lilian Thorpe. MD, PhD, FRCPC Ms. Kendra Ulmer. BSN, RN, MN Dr. Niels Koehnke. MD, MSc, FRCPC

    3rd edition prepared by:
    Ms. Kendra Ulmer. BSN, RN Rural Health Extension Program

    2nd edition prepared by:
    Ms. Leanne LaBrash, BSA, MS I.ARE.H
    Ms. Kendra Ulmer. BSN, RN I.ARE.H

    1st Edition prepared by:
    Mrs. Julie Bidwell, BSN, RN I.ARE.H
    Rev. Adel Compton, BSN, RN, MDiv The United Church of Canada
    Mr. Ken Imhoff
    Farm Stress Unit

logos from contributors

Publication #: 2006

Disclaimer and Reproduction Information: Information in NASD does not represent NIOSH policy. Information included in NASD appears by permission of the author and/or copyright holder. More